Department of Evolutionary Paleobiology

Hubert SZANIAWSKI, Ph.D., D.Sc., Professor

Conodonts, scolecodonts, and chaetognaths - phylogeny and evolution 


Personal data

Hubert Junosza-Szaniawski (publishing as Hubert Szaniawski)
born in 1938, Równe (presently Ukraine)

Academic degrees and employment
  • 1962 M.Sc. Geology Department, University of Warsaw
  • 1962 – 1964 Research Assistant, Polish Geological Institute, Warsaw
  • 1968 Ph.D. Institute of Geological Sciences PAS, Warsaw
  • 1974 – 1981 Head of the Invertebrate Department, Zakład Paleozoologii PAN, Warsaw
  • 1975 D.Sc. Department of Biology and Earth Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Cracow
  • 1981 – 1992 Deputy Director, Institute of Paleobiology PAS, Warsaw
  • 1992 – 2006 Director, Institute of Paleobiology PAS, Warsaw
  • 1997 Professor of  Natural Sciences, Institute of Paleobiology PAS, Warsaw
  • 2007 – 2010 Chairman of the Scientific Council, Institute of Paleobiology PAS, Warsaw

Awards, achievements, and memberships

  • 1983 Award of the Divison of Biological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences  
  • 1996 Gold Cross of Merit (Polish national distinction)
  • 2008 Polonia Restituta, fifth class (Polish national distinction)
  • member of Scientific Society of Warsaw (Towarzystwo Naukowe Warszawskie)
  • member of Scientific Councils of several institutions (Institute of Geological Sciences PAS, Museum of The Earth PAS, Department of Antarctic Biology PAS)
  • member of Committe of Polar Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences

Research projects and scientific expeditions
  • 1970 Participation in Polish-Mongolian Expedition to Gobi Desert
  • 1973 – 1974 Participation in19-th Soviet Antarctic Expedition
  • 1975 Leader of the Polish Paleontological Expedition to Spitsbergen (Arctic)
  • 1977 – 1978 Fellowship of the Ohio State University in Columbus
  • 1986 1988 Participation in Swedish grant to Dr. Stefan Bengtson, Uppsala University, devoted to early evolution of conodonts
  • 19931995 German fellowships for short visits in Bonn and Berlin, scientific cooperation in German grants
  • 1994 Participation in Polish Antarctic Expedition (Arctowski Station)
  • 1996 Organizer of VI International Conodont Symposium (ECOS VI)
  • 1999 2001 Polish grant devoted to structure and taxonomic differentiation of “protoconodonts”
  • 2000 Fellowship of Macquarie University, New South Wales, for short visit in Australia
  • 2002 2004 Participation in Swedish grant to Dr. Per Ahlberg, Lund University, devoted to the phosphatised Cambrian trilobites
  • 2004 – 2006 Leader of two Polish-Ukrainian geological expeditions to Podolia (Ukraine) - grant financed by NATO entitled “Environmental and faunal changes on the Silurian-Devonian boundary in Dnester Basin, Ukraine", (5 participants from Poland and 3 from Ukraine)
  • 20082011 Leader of three Polish-Ukrainian geological expeditions to Podolia (Ukraine) - Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education grant devoted to faunal and environmental changes during the Silurian and Lower Devonian sedimentation in the Dnester Basin, Podolia, Ukraine, (three years, 5 participants from Poland and 2 from Ukraine). 
  • 20132015 Leader of a grant from National Science Centre: Early evolution of conodonts.

Editorial work
  • member of Editorial Board of Lethaia  (2002-2008)
  • member of Editorial Board of Acta Palaeontologica Polonica
  • guest editor of of the thematic issue of Paleontologia Polonica 58 (1998)
  • leader of the thematic issue ofActa Palaeontologica Polonica 57(4) 2012 - Siluro−Devonian of Podolia, Ukraine: Paleobiological, biostratigraphic, and geochemical aspects


  • Supervisor of Ph.D. thesis of Ryszard Wrona and M.Sc. thesis of Jagiellonian University student: Mirosław Słowakiewicz (subject: Devonian and Carboniferous scolecodonts).
  • Reviews of four foreign Ph.D. thesis (Germany, Sweden, India, and Austria)
  • Lectures at the Faculty of Biology and Earth Sciences of the Jagiellonian University and Silesian University, Ph.D. Studies "Geobios"
  • Lectures at the University of Modena (Italy), The Ohio State University (USA), University of Uppsala and Lund University (Sweden), Free University of Berlin (Germany), Geological Institute in Dehra Dun (India), Geological Institute in Kiev (Ukraine)

Research interests
  • Conodonts – origin, early evolution, and stratigraphic use.
  • Polychaetes (scolecodonts) – evolution, stratigraphic use and distribution.
  • Chaetognaths – origin, early evolution.


Scientific articles

Szaniawski, H. 1965. Nowy podział stratygraficzny cechsztynu synkliny gałęzicko-kowalskiej w Górach Świętokrzyskich (New stratigraphical subdivision of the Zechstein in the Gałęzice-Kowala Syncline, Święty Krzyż Mts.). Kwartalnik Geologiczny 9 (3): 575-599 + Pls 1-3.

Szaniawski, H. 1966. Rozwój facjalny i paleogeografia cechsztynu w rejonie Wyniesienia Łeby (Facial development and paleogeography of the Zechstein within the elevation of Łeba). Acta Geologica Polonica 16 (2): 229-247 + Pls. 1-2.

Szaniawski, H. 1968. Three new polychaete jaw apparatuses from the Upper Permian of Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 13 (2): 255-281 + Pls. 1-7, Warszawa.

Szaniawski, H. 1969. Conodonts of the Upper Permian of Poland. Ibidem 14 (2): 325-341 + Pls. 1-2.

Szaniawski, H. 1970. Stratygrafia, sedymentacja i paleogeografia cehsztynu na obszarze Pomorza. (Stratigraphy, sedimentation and paleogeography of the Zechstein in Pomerania). Acta Geologica Polonica 20 (3): 485-538 + pls. 1-4, Warszawa.

Szaniawski, H. 1970. Jaw apparatuses of the Ordovician  and Silurian Polychaetes from the Melnik borehole. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 15 (4): 445-478 + Pls. 1-5.

Szaniawski, H. 1971. New species of Upper Cambrian conodonts from Poland. Ibidem 16 (4): 401-413 + Pls. 1-5.

Kulicki, C. and Szaniawski, H. 1972. Cephalopod arm hooks from the Jurassic of Poland.  Ibidem 17 (3): 379-419 + Pls. 14-20.

Szaniawski, H. and Wrona, R. 1973. Polychaete jaw apparatuses and scolecodonts from the Upper Devonian of Poland. Ibidem 18 (3): 223-267 + Pls. 1-6.

Chlebowski, R. and Szaniawski, H. 1974. Chitinozoa from the Ordovician conglomerates at Międzygórze in the Holy Cross Mts.  Acta Geologica Polonica 24 (1): 221-228 + Pls. 1-2, Warszawa.

Szaniawski, H. 1974. Some Mesozoic scolecodonts congeneric with recent forms. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 19 (2): 179-199 + Pls. 1-3, Warszawa.

Szaniawski, H. 1975. Skolekodonty i konodonty z obszaru Polski i problemy ich systematyki (Scolecodonts and conodonts from Poland and the problem of their systematics). Przegląd Geologiczny 12: 584-592.

Małkowski, K. and Szaniawski, H. 1976. Permian conodonts from Vestspitsbergen and their stratigraphic significate; a preliminary note. Norsk Polarinstitutt Ärbok. 1975: 79-87 + Pl. 1, .

Szaniawski, H. and Gaździcki, A. 1978. A reconstruction of three Jurassic Polychaete jaw apparatuses. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 23 (1) 3-29 + Pls. 1-11..

Szaniawski, H. and Małkowski, K. 1979. Conodonts from the Kapp Starostin Formation (Permian) of Spitsbergen. Ibidem 24 (2), 231-264 + Pls. 4-10.

Szaniawski, H. 1980. Conodonts from the Tremadocian chalcedony beds, Holy Cross Mountains (Poland). Ibidem 25 (1): 101-121 + Pls. 15-18.

Szaniawski, H. 1982. Chaetognath grasping spines recognized among Cambrian protoconodonts. Journal of Paleontology 56: 806-810.

Szaniawski, H. 1983. Structure of protoconodont elements. Fossils and Strata 15: 21-27.

Szaniawski, H. 1987. Preliminary structural comparison of protoconodont, paraconodont and euconodont elements; In: R. J. Aldrige, (ed.) Paleobiology of Conodonts, .35-47. Ellis Horwood Limited, Chichester.

Szaniawski, H. and Wrona, R. 1987. Polychaete jaws from Cape Melville Formation (Lower Miocene) of King George Island, West Antarctica. Palaeontologia Polonica 49:105-

Walossek, D. and Szaniawski, H. 1991. Cambrocaris baltica n. gen. n. sp., a possible steam lineage crustacean from the Upper Cambrian of  Poland. Lethaia 24: 363-378.

Szaniawski, H. and Bengtson, S. 1993. Origin of euconodont elements. Journal of Paleontology 67: 640-654.

Szaniawski, H. 1994. Ordovician conodonts from Hornsund region, Southern Spitsbergen. In: Zalewski, S. M. (ed.) XXI Polar Symposium , 39-44, Warszawa.
Szaniawski, H. and Imajima, M. 1996. Hartmaniellidae-living fossils among polychaetes. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 41: 111-125.

Szaniawski, H. 1996. Scolecodonts. In: Jansonius, J. and Mc Gregor, D. C. (eds.),  Palynology principles and applications. American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Foundation, vol. 1: 337-354.

Hoffman, A., Gruszczyński, M., Małkowski, K. and Szaniawski, H. 1998. Should the Permian/Triassic Boundary be defined by the carbon isotope Shift? Acta Geologica Polonica 48 (2): 141-148.

Szaniawski, H. and Bengtson, S. 1998. Late Cambrian euconodonts from Sweden. In: H. Szaniawski (ed.). Proceedings of the Sixth European Conodont Symposium, ECOS VI, Palaeontologia Polonica 58: 7-29.

McIlroy, D. and Szaniawski, H. 2000. A lower Cambrian protoconodont apparatus from the Placentian of southeastern Newfoundland. Lethaia 33: 95-102.

Nakrem, H. A., Szaniawski, H. and Mørk, A. 2001. Permian-Triassic scolecodonts and conodonts from the Svalis Dome, Central Barents Sea, Norway. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 46 (1): 69-86.

Szaniawski, H. 2002. New evidence for the protoconodont origin of chaetognaths. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47 (3): 405–419.
Gruszczyński, M., Małkowski, K., Szaniawski, H. and Wang,  Ch-Y. 2003. The carbon biogeochemical cycle across the Permian-Triassic boundary strata and its implications: isotope record from the Changhsingian Stage at Meishan, South China. Acta Geologica Polonica 53 (3): 167- 179.

Szaniawski, H. 2005. Bacterially influenced phosphatisation of the Upper Cambrian – Lower Ordovician fossils of the Baltic region. Acta Micropalaeontologica Sinica 22 (supplement): 183-185

Szaniawski, H. 2005. Cambrian chaetognaths recognized in Burgess Shale fossils. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Warszawa, 50 (1): 1-8.

Ahlberg, P., Szaniawski, H., Clarkson, E.N.K. and Bengtson, S. 2005. Phosphatised olenid trilobites and associated fauna from the Upper Cambrian of  Västergötland, Sweden. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, Warszawa, 50 (3): 429-440.

Szaniawski, H. 2009. Fossil chaetognaths from Burgess Shale: A reply to Conway Morris (2009). Acta Palaeotologica Polonica 54 (2) 361-364.

Szaniawski, H. 2009. The earliest known venomous animals recognized among conodonts. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 54: 669 - 676.

Małkowski, K., Racki, G., Drygant, D. and Szaniawski, H. 2009. Carbon isotope stratigraphy across the Silurian–Devonian transition in Podolia, Ukraine: evidence for a global biogeochemical perturbation. Geological Magazine 146: 674–689.

Olempska, E., Horne D.J. and Szaniawski, H. 2012. First record of preserved soft parts in Paleozoic podocopid (Metacopina) ostracod, Cytherellina submagna: phylogenetic implications. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences 279: 564–570.

Drygant, D. and Szaniawski, H. 2012. Lochkovian conodonts from Podolia, Ukraine, and their stratigraphic significance. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 57 (4): 833-861.
Filipiak, P., Zatoń, M., Szaniawski, H. and Wrona, R. 2012. Palynology and microfacies of Lower Devonian mixed carbonate-siliciclastic deposits in Podolia, Ukraine. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 57 (4): 863–877.

Racki, G., Baliński, A., Wrona, R., Małkowski, K., Drygant, D. and Szaniawski, H. 2012. Faunal dynamics across the Silurian–Devonian positive isotope excursion  (δ13C, δ18O) in Podolia, Ukraine: Comparative analysis of the Ireviken and Klonk events. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 57: 795–832.

Voichyshyn, V.K. and Szaniawski, H. 2012. Acanthodian jaw bones from Lower Devonian marine deposits of Podolia, Ukraine. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 57: 879–896.

Szaniawski, H. and Drygant D. 2014.  Early Devonian scolecodonts from Podolia, Ukraine. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 59 (4): 967-983.

Szaniawski, H. 2015.  New group of the Early Palaeozoic conodont-like fossils. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 64 (1) , 91-94.

Filipiak, P. and Szaniawski, H. 2016.Nematophytes from the Lower Devonian of Podolia, Ukraine. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 224, 109–120. [text-journal site]

Abstracts and conference proceedings

Szaniawski, H. 1980. Fused cluster of paracodonts.  In: H. P. Schönlaub. (ed.), Second European Conodont Symposium (ECOS II), Guidebook, Abstracts. Abhandlungen der Geologischen Bundesansalt 35, 211-212, Vienna.

Repetski, J. E. and Szaniawski, H. 1981. Paleobiologic Interpretation of Cambrian and earliest Ordovician conodont natural assamblages;  In: M. E. Taylor (ed.), Short papers for the Second International Symposium on the Cambrian System 1981. U. S. Geological Survey, Open-File Report 81-743: 169-172.

Szaniawski, H. 1982. Organic matrix structure of protoconodnts.  In: L. Jeppsson, and A. Löfgren (eds.), Third European Conodont Symposium (ECOS III) Abstracts. Publications from the Institute of Mineralogy, Paleontology and Quaternary Geology, University of Lund, Sweden, 238: 22, Lund.

Szaniawski, H. 1984. Structure and possible origin of paraconodonts. In: 27-th International Geological Congress. Abstracts (additional) 9 (2); 64-65, Moscow.

Szaniawski, H. 1985. Structural comparison of proto-, para- and euconodonts. In: R. J. Aldrige, R.L. Austin,. and M. P. Smith (eds.) Fourth European Conodont Symposium (ECOS IV). Abstracts: 29, Nottingham.

Szaniawski, H. 1996. New evidence of protoconodont-chaetognath relationship. In: J. Dzik (ed.) European Conodont Symposium ECOS VI, Abstracts: 56,  Instytut Paleobiologii, Warszawa.

Szaniawski, H. and Bengtson, S. 1988. Formation of the first euconodont elements. Courier Forschunginstitut Senckenberg 102: 256-257.

Szaniawski, H. 1998. Ancestors of conodonts. In: G. Bagnoli (ed.) Seventh international conodont symposium held in Europe, Abstracts: 111-112. Bologna-Modena.

Müller, K.J.and Szaniawski, H. 1998. Middle Cambrian protoconodonts from Australia. In: G. Bagnoli (ed.) Seventh international conodont symposium held in Europe, Abstracts: 74. Bologna-Modena.

Szaniawski, H. 2000. Organic structures of protoconodont, paraconodont and early euconodont elements. Geological Society of Australia 61: 105-106.

Szaniawski, H. 2002. Fossil record of protoconodont – chaetognath evolutionary lineage. Strata 1 (12): 63.

Ahlberg, P., Szaniawski, H., Clarkson E.N.K. and Bengtson, S. 2005. Phosphatised olenid trilobites and associated faunal elements from the Furongian (Upper Cambrian) of Sweden. Acta Microplaentologica Sinica 22 (Supplement): 183-185.

Szaniawski, H. 2006. Biological Interpretation of the structure of Panderodontidae elements. In: International Conodont Symposium 2006, Leicester (abstracts): 78.

Drygant, D. and Szaniawski, H. 2008. Conodont stratigraphy of the Lower Devonian in Podolia, Ukraine. In: Field workshop 2008 of the IGCP 499- UNESCO “Devonian land sea interaction: evolution of ecosystems and climate”, Tripoli, Libya.

Drygant, D. and Szaniawski, H. 2009. Conodonts of the Silurian-Devonian Boundary beds in Podolia, Ukraine. Rendiconti della Societa Palaeontologica Italiana 3 (3): 281-282.

Szaniawski, H. 2014. Possible relationship of the conodonts̕ and chaetognaths̕ ancestors. 4th Annual Meeting of IGCP 591, Estonia 2014: 88.

Szaniawski, H. 2015. Early Tremadocian phosphatized fossils from the Öland Island (Sweden). The International Conference, The Rise of Animal Life, Marrakesh, Abstracts and program, 116.


Szaniawski, H. 1963. Próba nowego podziału cechsztynu synkliny gałezickiej. Kwartalnik Geologiczny 7 (4): 510-511.

Szaniawski, H. 1964. Wyniki prac rozpoznawczych na wysadzie solnym Rogoźno. Ibidem 8 (2): 413-414.

Szaniawski, H. 1964. Cechsztyn na Pomorzu Gdańskim. Ibidem 8 (4): 922-923.

Szaniawski, H. and Werner, Z. 1965. Wstępne wyniki wiercenia Wejherowo (Preliminary results of  bore-hole Wejherowo). Przegląd Geologiczny 13 (1): 41-42, Warszawa.

Szaniawski, H. 1973 Sympozjum konodontowe w Marburgu. Przegląd Geologiczny 6: 341- 344.

Szaniawski, H. 1975. Udział Polski w badaniach geologicznych i biologicznych na Antarktydzie (Contribution of Poland in geological and biological studies in Antarctica). Przegląd Geologiczny 4: 193-198.

Szaniawski, H. 1976. Konodonty w warstwach chalcedonowych dolnego ordowiku Gór Świętokrzyskich. In: Żakowa H. (ed.) Materiały do II Naukowej Konferencji Paleontologów. Sekcja Paleontologiczna Polskiego Towarzystwa Paleontologicznego, str. 30. Kielce.

Szaniawski, H. 1977. Druga wyprawa polskich paleontologów na Spitsbergen (Second Polish Paleontological expedition to Spitsberegn). Przegląd  Geologiczny 3: 154-157.

Szaniawski, H., Wrona, R. i Gaździcki, A. 1983. Znaczenie badań  paleontologicznych w Antarktyce i udział Polaków w ich realizacji. Kosmos 179: 333-344.

Bednarczyk, W. and Szaniawski, H. 1990. Rząd Paraconodontida Müller 1962. W: M. Pajchlowa (red), Budowa geologiczna Polski; atlas skamienia.łości przewodnich i charakterystycznych, II/ 1a: 72-75.

Nehring-Lefeld, M. and Szaniawski, H. 1990. Rząd Conodontophorida Eichenberg 1930. W: Budowa geologiczna Polski; atlas skamieniałości przewodnich i charakterystycznych, Tom II, cz. 1a (red. M. Pajchlowa), 238-255.

Szaniawski, H. 1994. 40 lat działalności Instytutu Paleobiologii im. Romana Kozłowskiego. Przegląd Geologiczny, 42 (1): 43-48.

Szaniawski, H. 1994. Wymieranie faun w minionych epokach geologicznych na przykładzie konodontów. Rocznik Towarzystwa Naukowego Warszawskiego, LVII: 111-113.

Szaniawski, H. 1996. Poznanie stanowiska systematycznego konodontów - wielkie odkrycie paleontologiczne XX wieku. Kosmos, 45: 645-656.

Szaniawski, H. 1997. Centennial celebration of the Belgica Ekspedition. Polish Polar Research 18 (3-4): 247-249.

Szaniawski, H. 2004. Polskie korzenie generała Alfonsa Szaniawskiego. W: S. Sznol 2004, Herosi, gangsterzy i konformiści: 105-116. Dom Wydawniczy Bellona, Warszawa.

Szaniawski, H. 2005. Polsko-ukraińskie badania geologiczne na Podolu subsydiowane przez NATO. Przegląd Geologiczny 53 (7): 557-559.

Szaniawski, H. 2006. Niezbędne ograniczenia w używaniu liczby powołań na publikacje do oceny uczonych i placówek naukowych. Nauka 2006. 3: 161-162.

Rakusa-Suszczewski, S. and Szaniawski, H. 2006. O Polakach w armii carskiej Rosji. Nauka. 2006. 4: 101-110.


Hubert Szaniawski

Institute of Paleobiology PAS
ul. Twarda 51/55
PL-00-818 Warsaw, POLAND
phone: (+48 22) 6978-897; room 134